2.A review of Mahyco's GM Brinjal food safety studies, by Dr Judy Carman (January 2009)
3.Doctors for Food & Bio-Safety call for a moratorium on GM crops/foods
Comment from THIRD WORLD NETWORK BIOSAFETY INFORMATION SERVICE, 18 January 2009: As the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC), India's regulatory body for GE crops and foods, meets to look at the results of the two-year large scale trials of Bt Brinjal across the country, new analyses of the data have emerged that cast doubts on the safety of the GM crop.
Professor Gilles-Eric Seralini of the the France-based Committee for Independent Research and Information on Genetic Engineering (CRIIGEN) analysed Mahyco's Bt brinjal biosafety data (the full study is available at: http://www.criigen.org/images/stories/Actualites/ActusOGM/btbrinjal-ges_%200109.pdf ) and points out that Bt brinjal had not been properly tested from the safety and environmental point of view, observing that in feeding trials significant differences were noted in animals fed with Bt brinjal compared to those fed non-Bt controls. He therefore concludes that "Clear significant differences were seen that raise food safety concerns and warrant further investigation. The GM Bt brinjal cannot be considered as safe as its non GM counterpart. Indeed, it should be considered as unsuitable for human and animal consumption."
Meanwhile, another analysis from Dr Judy Carman of the Institute of Health & Environmental Research, New Zealand, also concluded that the studies presented byMahyco cannot be used to show that GM brinjal is safe to eat, particularly when population health issues are taken into account. In particular it found that the studies presented byMahyco are simply inadequate to determine important matters concerning toxicology, allergy, and reproductive health.
In light of the two analyses, a network of medical experts from across the country called "Doctors for Food & Bio-Safety" has called for a moratorium on all open air trials of GM crops in India.
The doctors were concerned that the incorporation of antibiotic resistant markers in Bt Brinjal is likely to have disastrous implications for developing countries like India which are struggling with communicable diseases burdens.
They further observed that the decreased calorific content (15% lesser) in Bt Brinjal and altered consumption in different studies will mean impact on nutrition which an already malnourished public could avoid. Others, such as scientists, researchers, health professionals and environmentalists have also raised their voice against the introduction of the Bt Brinjal crop in view of its potentially negative effects on human beings and animals.
With best wishes,
Third World Network
Website: www.biosafety-info.net and www.twnside.org.sg
EFFECTS ON HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT OF TRANSGENIC (OR GM) BT BRINJAL
by Pr. Gilles-Eric SERALINI, University of Caen, France (January 2009)
The dossiers submitted by Mahyco in support of their application for commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) Bt brinjal raise serious concerns. Most of these are not signed by researchers that have performed the tests on pages where they should be (signature frames empty), and could be considered as non valid. Bt brinjal has been modified to produce an unknown chimeric insecticide toxin containing Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac modified sequences. In the toxicity tests on target and non-target insects, this chimeric toxin has not been used but instead, an improper Cry1Ac toxin was used because this control was easier. This could also make these tests not valid. Moreover, Bt brinjal produces into the vegetable cells a protein inducing resistance towards at least kanamycin, a well known antibiotic. This is typical of the first generation of GMOs which have been made without consideration of the problem. Antibiotic resistance is recognized to be a major health problem because of the growing
development in the environment and bodies of antibiotic resistance genes. It is very inappropriate to consider commercialising a food containing an antibiotic resistance gene since several modern biotechnology companies have already developed transgenic plants without this kind of marker genes. It is possible that Mahyco has bought an old unused GMO technology to Monsanto Company. Bt brinjal has not been properly tested at a safety or an environmental point of view. However in feeding trials, numerous significant differences were noted compared to the best corresponding non-Bt controls: Bt brinjal appears to contain 15% less kcal/100 g, have a different alkaloÃ¯d content, and 16-17 mg/kg Bt insecticide toxin poorly characterized for side effects, and produced by the plant genetically modified for this. Parameters affected in animals fed with this GMO are in blood cells or chemistry, but in different manners according to the period of measurement during the study or the sex: in goats
prothrombin time is modified, and biochemical parameters such as total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase are also changed, as well as feed consumption and weight gain. For rabbits less consumption was noted and also prothrombin time modification, higher bilirubin in some instances, albumin, lactose dehydrogenase and the hepatic markers alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Sodium levels were also modified, as well as glucose, platelet count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit value. In cows milk production and composition were 10-14% changed. There was more milk and more roughage dry matter intake like if the animals were treated by a hormone. Rats GM-fed had diarrhoea, higher water consumption, liver weight decrease as well as relative liver to body weight ratio decrease. Feed intake was modified in broiler chickens as well as glucose in some instances. Average feed conversion and efficiency ratios are changed in GM-fed fishes. All that makes a very coherent picture of Bt brinjal that is potentially unsafe for human consumption. It will be also potentially unsafe to eat animals with these problems, having eaten GMOs. These differences are most often not reported in the summaries of the different experiments but are in the raw data. These differences were, when discussed, disregarded, often on the grounds that they were within the range of a wide “reference” group (really larger than the real closest control group). This reference group represents a wide range of brinjal types and is not a strict comparison. Other reasons for disregarding the differences were that they did not show linear dose response or time response, or that they were only present in either males or females, but not both. Such declarations that the differences seen are not of biological relevance are not substantiated by the data presented from the feeding trials. Clear significant differences were seen that raise food safety concerns and warrant further
investigation. The GM Bt brinjal cannot be considered as safe as its non GM counterpart. Indeed, it should be considered as unsuitable for human and animal consumption. In addition, the longest toxicity tests which are for only 90 days do not assess long-term effects like the development of tumours or cancers.
It is almost impossible through measurements of toxicity to a few species of non-target organisms to get a sufficient view of possible harm to complicated ecosystems, which, moreover vary substantially from place to place in India. The experiments on the potential toxicity of GM Bt brinjal to non target organisms (such as butterflies and moths), to beneficial insects and to long-term soil health are woefully inadequate and give no assurances for the environmental safety of growing GM Bt brinjal. Indeed, in many cases the experiments were considered irrelevant (e.g. do not take indirect effects, such as effects up the food chain into account). The gene flow studies assess but not extensively and not in an adequate manner the possibility of GM contaminations, in particular to neighbouring brinjal crops. This neglects other routes of contamination (e.g. by mixing seeds).
Based on these tests, Bt brinjal cannot be considered as safe. It is known anyway that natural Bt toxins have never been authorized as such for mammalian consumption. Artificial ones should not be either, before a more serious assessment. Significant effects in comparison to controls are also noticed with other GMOs tolerant to Roundup, and in total with at least four GMOs for which these kinds of tests have been done. These resemble classical side effects of pesticides in toxicology; and these have also been observed for MON810 maize producing a related insecticide which is present in part in the Bt brinjal, Cry1Ab.
Brinjal is known to have existed in India for 4000 years Given that India is also a functional Centre of Origin of brinjal, any release of Bt Brinjal into the environment, poses a significant risk of contamination to sexually compatible wild species and consequent harm to the environment in addition to the contamination of Non-GM varieties. The commercialisation of Bt Brinjal will exacerbate that risk. The release of Bt brinjal for these reasons as well would be a problem.
The agreement for Bt brinjal release into the environment, for food, feed or cultures, may present a serious risk for human and animal health and the release should be forbidden.
A review of Mahyco's GM Brinjal food safety studies
Dr Judy Carman BSc (Hons) PhD MPH MPHAA
This document has been written in response to Mahyco's dossier in the public domain and a request for an appraisal of the data by lead Petitioner in the Supreme Court of India,Aruna Rodrigues.
This review concentrates on the food safety evaluation done by Mahyco as reported in Chapter 7 of Volume 1 of their submission and critiques that section.
One of the greatest concerns about the process of genetic engineering is that the actual process of inserting the gene may cause the plant to up-regulate or down-regulate the normal genetic expression of the plant and hence to produce more of something harmful to human health, or less of something beneficial to human health. An associated concern is that the insertion process may cause the plant to produce a novel substance for that plant. There are certainly examples of all of these effects appearing as a result of genetic engineering. Yet, the compositional analyses presented to the Indian Government by Mahycodo not assess these known likelihoods.
For example, the compositional comparisons concentrate on measuring moisture, protein, oil, ash, carbohydrates, calories for fruit tissue, nitrogen, ash and crude fibre. These are
extremely crude measures of the nutritional components of brinjal. A full protein analysis would have gone some way to determine if the plant was producing more, or less, ofsomething, or a completely new substance. Yet it was not done.
Moreover, according to page 104 of Mahyco's document, a sample size of only three Bt brinjal and three non-BT brinjal were used to determine the differences in compositionbetween the GM and non-GM brinjal. This is woefully inadequate to determine compositional differences between two crops. The composition of the two crops (the 'clinical' difference) would have to be profoundly different to be able to be picked up as a statistical difference using such a tiny sample size. Also, the only real way of comparing the composition in this manner is to grow the GM and non-GM parent brinjal from which the GM brinjal was developed, side-by-side in the same field, under the same conditions of soil type, fertilizer, herbicides, insecticides, water, sunshine, etc, and then to use samples from these plants in the comparison studies. Only then can any differences between the GM and non-GM crops be determined to be due to the genetic insert and not due to confounders such as soil type, fertilizer,
herbicides, insecticides, water, sunshine, etc. Yet Mahyco do not describe if their samples were obtained in this manner or not.
The analyses presented also do not take into account compositional differences found under different growing conditions in different areas of India. For example, no work seems to have been done on whether the concentration of harmful components of Bt brinjal increase under different climatic conditions, eg heat or water stress. In order to do this, the comparative growing study described above, where GM and non-GM parent brinjal are grown in the same field under identical conditions, would need to be repeated in various places in India under different climatic and soil conditions. These do not appear to have been done.
In addition, as woefully inadequate as simple amino acid and fatty acid profiles are, even these do not appear to have been done by Mahyco. (Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, while fatty acids are the components of fats.)
Moreover, information about the chemical composition and alkaloid content measurements did not provide the following standard and required statistical information: the mean and standard deviation of each group, the nature of the statistical test done and the p-value resulting from the statistical test. Furthermore, the analysis of alkaloid content in GM brinjal does not even provide information as to how many brinjal were tested in each group. For the Cry1Ac protein estimation in brinjal after cooking, no cooking temperatures or samples sizes were given. Mahyco also appears not to have undertaken any studies to determine if the GM DNA in GM brinjal can degrade upon cooking.
GM crops are deemed to be substantially equivalent to non-GM crops until they fail some type of substantial equivalence test. Yet no decision has been made as to what this test should be; how compositionally different a GM crop needs to be from a non-GM crop to be regarded as different. To elaborate, if there had been a decision made that a GM crop is judged to be compositionally different if say 10% of its amino acids are statistically significantly different when fruit from 50 different brinjal plants are measured, or that a full protein analysis needs to be done and the GM brinjal needs to have all proteins within 10% of the levels present in non-GM brinjal, then there would be a clear hurdle that GM brinjal would need to clear to be deemed to be substantially equivalent. But there is no such hurdle. Instead, there is a bland statement by the producers of GM brinjal that their crop is substantially equivalent without even describing the scientific criteria they have used to
determine substantial equivalence or any pass/fail level they may have within these criteria.
Many of the errors described constitute errors of research methodology which can only be corrected by conducting appropriately-planned and executed research. Until this work is done, it cannot be stated that the composition of Bt brinjal is similar to ordinary brinjal.
In summary, the information submitted by Mahyco is completely inadequate to determine if the composition of Bt brinjal is similar or different to ordinary brinjal. Moreover, the information presented do not meet accepted scientific standards of reporting.
To determine allergenicity of the Bt brinjal, Mahyco first did a paper-based analysis. It artificially split the GM protein that it expected to be produced (not any unexpected proteins) into smaller segments and compared the segments to certain databases of known allergens. It should be remembered that not all allergens are known, even in peanuts, and that, even for the known allergens, not all are represented in these databases.
Mahyco also reported a skin irritation test on rabbits and a mucous membrane test using vaginal tissue in rabbits on pages 113-116 of volume 1. For both studies, only three female rabbits were used for each treatment group and the animals followed for only 72 hours after exposure. The studies cannot be regarded as allergy tests as the test substance was only applied once. Allergies generally require repeated exposure to a substance before an allergy can be developed. Then, the more often the exposure, the worse the allergic reaction tends to get. Although clinical signs of matters such as toxicity and skin reaction were measured in this test, there is no description as to exactly what these involved and what would constitute an adverse finding. Moreover, no matter what measurements were taken, calculations indicate that even if all rabbits treated with the GM material showed a severe adverse clinical effect compared to no rabbits suffering this effect in the non-GM-treated rabbits,
the appropriate statistical test would be completely unable to find statistical significance due to the small number of animals used.
The methodology of the allergy study undertaken in Brown Norway rats does not meet the standards of allergy testing employed by other researchers that have found allergic reactions due to consumption of GM crops (1) and the full results were not given in the text.
Mahyco did not provide any reproductive studies and it therefore appears not to have done any, eventhough adverse reproductive effects have been found from eating other GM crops (2), (3). These results strongly indicate that reproductive studies should be required before any GM crop could be assessed as safe to eat.
Digestive studies used an in vitro (in glass) method of determining how quickly the protein that is expected to be produced will break down in the intestine. No data appear to have been given for the digestibility of GM DNA. Such studies are notorious for providing false assurances about the digestibility of GM DNA and proteins. For example, such studies often use unrealistically high levels of stomach acid and digestive enzymes. The level of acid in a human stomach moves towards neutral once food enters it. The only real way to determine how quickly GM DNA and protein are digested is to do experiments in animals or humans.
Several of these in vivo studies have shown that GM DNA can and does survive digestion and can be found in tissues of the body. A recent study in Italy found that GM DNA present in the feed of cows could even be found in milk on supermarket shelves (4).
Acute toxicity studies on animals
The results of these studies cannot be used to determine the safety of GM brinjal, as described below.
Acute toxicology test on mice
This test was not done using the GM proteins as expressed in the GM plant that people will be eating. Instead, Mahyco used proteins that were produced by GM bacteria that were engineered to produce the GM proteins. Mahyco appears not to have determined if the proteins are exactly similar in structure and function as those found in the plant, even though it is known that the expression of the same DNA in different organisms can produce proteins with different physiological effects1. Moreover, the study on the Cry1Ac protein used only 10 mice per group, a seriously insufficient number to determine the true clinical outcomes of these mice, while the number of mice used to test the NPTII protein is not given. It appears that body weight and food consumption were the only real measurements taken for the Cry1Ac protein study because, while tissue samples were taken, they appear to only have been kept and not analysed. Furthermore, while pathological changes were seen in the 'gross
necroscopy' in some mice, neither the nature of the necroscopy nor the nature of the changes were described. Nor were the nature of the statistical tests, the means, standard deviations and p-values of the analyses given.
Oral toxicity study on rats
This study used only 5 male and female rats per group, which is an completely inadequate number to determine the true toxicological effects of GM brinjal on these rats. To give just one example of how inadequate this is, the concentration of a key liver function enzyme in the blood, AST, gives a measure of the health of the liver. Male rats fed GM brinjal had a concentration of AST that was 48% and 63% higher than feeding rats non-GM brinjal. Yet, this clinically significant finding was not found to be statistically significant. Calculations indicate that adding just a single extra rat to each group to bring the number of rats to a still tiny 6 per group, would have made this difference statistically significant, which would in turn have indicated that feeding GM brinjal to male rats could cause liver damage.
It appears that only one dose per rat was given and then the rats were followed for only 14 days. Food consumption, and only some haematology and biochemistry measurements were taken. It is normal to take 18-20 clinical biochemical measurements on blood from animals and humans to determine health. Yet only eight standard biochemical results are shown in the tables associated with this study. Only overwhelmingly adverse effects could be picked up this way using this number of animals for this time period and the study is simply inadequate to predict the effect of feeding this GM crop to 1.15 billion Indians for generations. Moreover, the company rarely reports the nature of the tests undertaken, the means, standard deviations, statistical tests undertaken or the p-values of the statistical analyses.
Animal feeding studies
Several animal feeding studies are presented in an effort to show that Bt brinjal is safe to eat. They include studies on fish, chickens, goats, rabbits, cows and rats. Most of these species are most unusual to use for human health studies, and many of the measurements taken on these animals are also unusual measures of human health. For example, chickens and fish are not even mammals. Chickens fly, lay eggs and do not suckle their offspring, swallow stones and grit to help grind their food, do not have human-like lungs or digestive systems and have kidneys that do not even produce urine. As chickens are clearly very different from humans, they therefore cannot be used as a model for human health. Using fish is worse. Besides the obvious differences in physiology involving things such as scales, lungs (humans cannot breathe underwater), and kidneys (fish kidneys do not produce urine), they are not even warm-blooded animals. Many of these studies use death as an end-point. Death is not a measure of health. Most people know people who are alive but not healthy because they have serious illnesses such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease, liver disease or infectious diseases.
Realistically, these studies are more useful to reassure primary producers that if they feed their fish, chickens, goats, rabbits and cows the GM brinjal, their animals will grow large enough and survive for long enough for the animal to get a good price at market. Further evidence for this is given by the emphasis on measures such as death rate, weight gain, growth rates, feed conversion ratios, milk production and carcass yield in these studies.
Furthermore, there was no full description of the diets fed to the animals in any of these studies. There was no list of the macro-nutrients used such as carbohydrate, fat, protein (and the components of these, such as the nature of the amount and type of saturated and unsaturated fats and which plants or animals they came from). Nor were the micro-nutrients given, such as the levels of the various vitamins and minerals in the diet. Nor was there a full description as to the source of the components of the diet such as which grains were used and in what proportions. So there is no understanding as to the nutritional adequacy of the diets.
Furthermore, there is no understanding as to whether the diets were heat-treated before they were fed and how much heat may have been used. Heat can destroy proteins and antinutrients which might otherwise affect health. In addition, it does not appear that the various diets were analysed for other GM ingredients Corn and particularly soy are often ingredients in laboratory diets and soy is certainly present in the fish and cow diets used by Mahyco.
Much of the soy produced in the world comes from the US and South America and much of this is GM. The presence of GM products such as GM soy is therefore a confounder in these studies and needs to be measured. It is possible that any effects due to eating GM brinjal could be swamped by the effects of animals eating GM soy.
The number of animals used in each of these experiments is also too small to be able to find statistical significance for anything but overwhelming clinical findings. Often there are only five or six animals per group. To use a simple example of how inadequate this is, if the death rate is compared between two groups and six animals are used in each of those groups, two thirds (67%) of animals have to die in one group and nil in the other before a statistical difference can be found. If only five animals are used per group, the situation becomes even worse. Now 80% of animals have to die in one group and nil in the other before statistical significance can be found. There is also no statement as to whether the animals used were inbred or outbred animals. The use of outbred animals generally requires more animals in each dietary group for most measures to obtain statistical significance compared to using inbred animals. It is unlikely that Mahyco could source inbred laboratory fish,
chickens, goats or cows.
While Mahyco's studies often report that measurements such as clinical chemistry were taken on blood, the results are rarely given. And even when they are given, it is unlikely that statistical significance could be found, given the low number of animals in each group.
Organs may be weighed and perhaps expressed as a percentage of the body weight, but a diseased organ can weigh much the same as a healthy one. Histology, where the organ is sectioned, stained and looked at under a microscope is the appropriate method of determining if an organ is healthy. Yet this seems to have been rarely done.
The only real health study that could be used by Mahyco to support its application for safety is a single rat study, which is why the company submitted the raw data associated with this study to the Indian government. In this instance, 10 rats per gender were used, the highest number of animals per group in any experiment. Again, studying this number of rats for only a few weeks is clearly woefully inadequate to determine the long-term health effects of 1.15 billion Indians eating GM brinjal for generations. An example of the inadequacy of the study's statistical power to find anything is shown by considering two matters. First, calculations indicate that if the number of female rats per group was increased to just 13, the 67% higher white blood cell count in the GM brinjal-fed group compared to a non-GM-fed group could reach statistical significance. Second, if the number of rats were increased to just 16 per group, GM brinjal could be found to cause a significant difference
(increase) in AST in blood. This result supports the previous finding from the rat toxicological study where if 6 rats per group had been used, male rats could have been found to have a significantly higher level of this liver enzyme. Put together, the results of the two rat experiments indicate that if more animals had been used, male rats may have been shown to have evidence of liver damage from eating GM brinjal.
The raw data of this study indicate that the rats were highly variable at the beginning of the study. The body weights of some groups varied by as much as 31% within a group at the start of the study. This is an unusually high amount of within-group variability for body weight, and with a sample size of only 10 per group, could have masked any between-group effects. Essentially, statistics is about finding a signal amongst the noise. If there is too much noise, the signal cannot be found even if it is strongly present. Having this much variability within each group adds noise, making it very hard to find any signal.
The blood biochemistry and haematology data are also quite limited. For example, it is normal to take 18-20 biochemical measurement in blood to determine the health of an animal. This study takes only seven.
Moreover, while Mahyco presented a lot of raw data for some studies, with its interpretation of that data, it left-out most of the data that would be required in a peer-reviewed scientific journal for most of its studies and when data was actually given, Mahyco often omitted a key part of the analysis, such as the actual statistical results, eg p-values. That is, Mahyco omitted much of the results of the research from the report. It is also clear that the researchers were not blinded as to which group was fed GM and which was fed non-GM diets, which could bias the results. Moreover, the environmental conditions under which the animals were kept appear to be unusually variable and the GM status of the feed was determined using an inaccurate protein method instead of a far more accurate DNA method.
It appears that none of these studies has been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. This may be because the studies were not of a sufficient standard to be published.
While it appears the Mahyco has conducted a number of studies to show that Bt brinjal is safe to eat, in fact none of the studies are of any real use, for the following main reasons:
1. The type of studies undertaken are insufficient to be able to determine if GM brinjal is safe to eat. For example, there have been no reproductive studies and the studies that have been done often use animals and/or measurements that are inappropriate or insufficient measures of human health.
2. Of those studies undertaken, the methodology and results are often insufficiently reported to be able to determine what the studies were actually measuring or how various variables were measured. Included in this, the statistical results have not been reported to a suitable standard. For example, means, standard deviations, and pvalues, which would be required for any peer-reviewed scientific journal, are usually omitted.
3. The sample sizes are insufficient to be able to find statistical difference for many measurements even if real clinical differences are occurring between groups. Indeed, much of the research presented by Mahyco could be regarded as being burdened with Type II error. This type of statistical error occurs when sample sizes are so low that the study cannot realistically be expected to find a difference between groups of animals even if clinical differences are occurring.
Consequently, the studies presented by Mahyco cannot be used to show that GM brinjal is safe to eat, particularly when population health issues are taken into account. That is, if this GM brinjal comes into the Indian food supply, then every Indian will be eating it, resulting in 1.15 billion Indians exposed to the GM brinjal. Some of those exposed will be children or the elderly. Some of those exposed will already be ill with cancer, autoimmune problems, heart disease, diabetes, or infectious diseases. Because of the number of people exposed, if GM brinjal is later found to cause illness, it could cause significant economic and social problems for India. For example, if only 1 in 1,000 of exposed people later gets ill, or has an underlying illness made worse, then over a thousand million Indians would be ill and requiring treatment. This would result in a huge cost to the Indian government and community. It is therefore important to ensure that the safety assessment of GM brinal is
sound and thoroughly covers all the major concerns of toxicology, allergy, and reproductive health. The studies presented by Mahyco are simply inadequate to determine these matters.
1. Prescott, VE, Campbell PM, Moore A, Mattes J, Rothenberg ME, Foster PS, Higgins TJV, Hogan SP (2005). Transgenic expression of bean α-amylase inhibitor in peas results in altered structure and immunogenicity. J Agric Food Chem, 53:9023-9030.
2. Velimirov A, Binter C, Zentek J (2008). Biological effects of transgenic maize NK603xMON810 fed in long term reproduction studies in mice. Department/Universitätsklinik für Nutztiere und öffentliches Gesundheitswesen in der Veterinärmedizin Institut für Ernährung, Vienna, Austria.
3. Vecchio L, Cisterna B, Malatesta M, Martin TE, Biggiogera M (2004) Ultrastructural analysis of testes from mice fed on genetically modified soybean. European Journal of Histochemistry, 48:449-454.
4. Agodi A, Barchitta M, Grillo A, Sciacca S (2006). Detection of genetically modified DNA sequences in milk from the Italian market. Int J Hyg Environ-Health 209 :81 88.
Doctors for Food & Bio-Safety call for a moratorium on GM crops/foods
Press Release, January 14 2009
New Delhi: As the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) sits down today for a 'discussion on Bt Brinjal proposal under large scale trials' in the Ministry of Environment & Forests, eminent medical experts from across the country from a network called "Doctors for Food & Bio-Safety" called for a moratorium on all open air trials of GM crops in India. These experts, after perusing through the first independent analysis of Mahyco's biosafety data of Bt Brinjal by France's CRIIGEN, sent a resolution to the GEAC to this effect.
They pointed out that the French analysis of Mahyco's data adequately addresses and questions the validity of the so called bio-safety data of Bt Brinjal in terms of: validity of biological/ animal experiments carried out by the applicant incl. study design; Adequacy of bio-safety testing protocols used; Validity of statistical analyses carried out including sampling procedures; Glossing over/unscientific basis of overlooking important findings.
The doctors pointed out that the obsolete technology used in Bt Brinjal incorporating antibiotic resistant markers is likely to have disastrous implications for developing countries like India which are struggling with communicable diseases burden. This may jeopardize National Health Programmes for control of Tuberculosis (already struggling with MDR/ XDR tuberculosis), diarrhoeal diseases, sexually transmitted diseases etc.
They further observed that the decreased calorific content (15% lesser) in Bt Brinjal and altered consumption in different studies will mean impact on nutrition which an already malnourished public could avoid.
The changes in bilirubin indicate effect on hepatic functions. Study with lactating cows showed increased milk production indicating hormonal effects. If this is so, what are the implications on pregnancy, foetal health, reproductive functions etc. There is an obvious requirement for longer term studies especially on reproductive health Absence of these aspects in Mahyco's dossiers is not acceptable, the doctors said.
In Ayurveda and Siddha, herbs are used according to the taste (Rasa), medicinal property of phyto-chemical (Guna), strength (Veerya), the end taste after digestion (VipaakaRasa) and synergistic medicinal property (Prabhaava). Any intrusion in the basic component of a drug may cause major change in the constitution of the drug, leading to unknown impacts. The difference in solamargine and solasonine is the clear evidence of loss of synergy and imbalance in the phytomolecules, which may largely affect the therapeutic and nutritive benefit of brinjal. There is no study as part of the impact assessment done to study related aspects, they pointed out.
The doctors endorsed Dr Pushpa Bhargava's comments on the regulators compromising objectivity by basing their approval processes based on data submitted by the applicant itself and emphasized the need for mandatory independent research by mandatory elaborate protocols including for long term research.
Meanwhile, another independent analysis from Institute of Health & Environmental Research, New Zealand (led by Dr Judy Carman) to be submitted to the Supreme Court soon, also concluded that the studies presented by Mahyco cannot be used to show that GM brinjal is safe to eat, particularly when population health issues are taken into account. This analysis points to insufficiency of the type of studies taken up for the safety assessment, that statistical results have not been reported to a suitable standard in addition to sample sizes being insufficient (type II errors).
For more information, contact: Dr G P I Singh at  98-155-42987
1.Effects on health and environment of transgenic (or GM) Bt brinjal, by Pr. Gilles-Eric Seralini (January 2009)